Sunday, October 12, 2014
Stonehenge, the Royal Seat of the Indo-European Wessex Culture
Just as I have demonstrated in previous articles that Germanic languages, indeed even English were spoken in England centuries prior to the accepted date of 449CE so Indo-European, the parent of Germanic was spoken far earlier than the accepted mid first millenim BCE. Indeed Indo-European in some form was spoken here at the time of the building of phases II and III of Stonehenge and indeed the Stonehenge ruins that have survived were the product of Indo-European man.
Arond 2000 BCE the Bell Beaker people arrived here from the Rhineland and had a practise of burying their dead singly, not collectively. This is an Indo-European trait. Soon after they were joined by the people of the Corded-Ware/Battle-Axe culture. The intermingling of the Battle-Axe people with the Bell-Beaker people produced the Necked-Beaker culture. This was a warrior culture. They buried their dead with finely carved stone Battle-Axes and bronze daggers under large round burial mounds which litter the countryside of Wessex, particularly around Stonehenge. This culture was named the Wessex Culture, a term coined by Pofessor Stuart Piggott in 1937. The Wessex Culture was certainly an aristocratic one. It is this culture which was dominant at the construction of Phase III of Stonehenge.
The Bush Barrow burial find which included a gold lozenge breast plate, three bronze daggers, a bronze axe, a helmet and a sceptre of rare fossiliferous limestone from Devon is indicative of a royal burial. Indeed Patrick Crampton (Stonehenge of the Kings, 1967) believed him to be the High King of Stonehenge who ruled over 4 Under Kings. This theme was elaborated on further by Leon Stover in Stonehenge: Where Atlantis Died (1972, expanded in 1983) which should be noted was a work of fiction and the more academic Stonehenge: The Indo-European Heritage (1978) and Stonehenge City: A Reconstruction (2003).
The Clandon Barrow burial find was of a similar importance and type to the Bush Barrow one. The King there was buried with a similar gold lozenge breast plate, a bronze dagger, an amber cup of all one piece and a sceptre of Kimmeridge shale with gold studs. These were all high value prestigious items and involved extensive trading links, a sign of wealth and status.
Parallel and contemporary to the latter stage of Stonehenge was the time of the Irish High Kings at Tara which also was an aristocratic Indo-European warrior society. The Irish High King like the British High King also ruled over four subordinate Under Kings. Anyone who has studied the Irish sagas alongside that of the Iliad and Odyssey will see the obvious strong comparison with the Icelandic sagas and Eddas. The five trilithons may in some way be linked to these five kings.
The presence of of over 100 axe carvings and several dagger carvings on the sarsens of Stonehenge are indicative of an Indo-European culture and clearly this monument was dedicated by the Indo-Europeans to their sky god, the axe being the supreme symbol of the deity that rules the sky and sends forth thunder and lightning.
The monuments and hill figures of Wessex need to be seen as part of this dominant Indo-European culture and this is something I intend to focus on in future articles.