Saturday, October 27, 2012
Sunday, October 21, 2012
Viktor Rydberg in his Investigations into Germanic Mythology Volume II Part I:Indo-European Mythology states that Vata is the natural side of the God and Vayu the spiritual side. Like Woden He is considered to be the lord of the wild hunt and is also known as Vayu amongst the Iranians. Interestingly this God survived the devastating Zoroastrian reforms and without any loss of status. He is therefore highly significant and should be considered as a father of the Gods.
In the Avesta he is portrayed as a lord of the wind and war. He was even worshiped by the Zoroastrian so-called `supreme` God Ahuramazda. Like Woden Vata-Vayu has a penetrating spear and wears a golden helmet.
"O The Wind`s chariot, O its power and glory! Crashing it goes and hath a voice of thunder. It makes the regions red and touches heaven, and as it moves the dust of earth is scattered. Along the traces of the wind they hurry, they come to him as dames to an assembly. Borne on his car with these for his attendants, the God speeds forth, the universe`s Monarch. Travelling on the paths of air`s mid-region, no single day doth he take rest or slumber. Holy and earliest-born, Friend of the waters, where did he spring and from what region came he? Germ of the world, the Deities` vital spirit, this God moves ever as his will inclines him. His voice is heard, his shape is ever viewless. Let us adore this Wind with our oblation."(Rig Veda Hymn 168)
Students of the Eddas will notice Vata-Vayu`s function as a giver of "vital spirit" or breath as we would term it and this is exactly what Woden imparted to man. Woden is also known as a vinr vagna, guardian, protector or friend of chariots and as valdr vagnbrautar, ruler of the chariot-road and infers His cosmic function as the All-Father ruler of the constellations. There appears to be some overlap with Indra and this should not surprise us as Woden and Thunor do share some similar functions, both being lords of the atmosphere. Woden focusing on the power of the wind and storm whilst Thunor is specifically linked to the thunder and lightning which are features of the storm.
In Rig Veda Hymn II Vayu is referred to as Indra-Vayu in verse 4. Interestingly Donald A. Mackenzie in his Indian Myth and Legend states: "The name Vata has been compared to Vate, the father of the Teutonic Volund or Wieland, the tribal deity of the Watlings or Vaetlings; in Old English the Milky Way was `Watling Street`". The fact that Woden may be found in the form of Vata-Vayu in the Rig Veda demonstrates the antiquity of this God right back to our common Proto-Indo-European past and thus puts paid to the lie that He is a `latecomer` to the Germanic world.
Monday, October 15, 2012
Saturday, October 13, 2012
Sunday, October 07, 2012
Our research is limited by the scant amount of original Anglo-Saxon literature, especially during the pre-conversion period as pre-christian Germanic society was largely a pre-literate one. Literacy was reserved for the rune masters and priests. Therefore we must also resort to exploring the terms used by other Germanic peoples. Before we do this we need to consider if there are any other Anglo-Saxon alternatives to preost. Aeweweard could be a suitable term but its pronunciation may be too difficult for some to to accept in everyday useage. Also strictly speaking the term is defined as `law-guardian`[Rudolf Simek, Northern Mythology]. The astute observer will note the second part of this word-weard, a term which we already use for hearth and gemoot warders. If we recall the Icelandic example the priest was also a temporal chieftain although the situation was different among the non-Scandinavian Germanic peoples where the two offices were separate.
Heargweard is a more interesting and in my opinion relevant term for the hearg was the sanctuary or temple and thus a heargweard was the guardian of the temple. In Iceland the priests were called gothar, the singular being gothi, the female gythja. The Gothic equivalent gudja corresponds closely to the Old Norse gudija. A temple priest in Icelandic would be a hofgothi. Clearly gothi`s specific meaning is `god man`. Hofgothi is very similar to the Anglo-Saxon heargweard with similar connotations. On balance I am in favour of the use of the term heargweard as Anglo-Saxons and Saxons this is more likely to be term which our ancestors used and differentiates us from Odinism and Asatru. We do not need to be dependent on their terminology nor do we need to use terms that are christian in origin or connotation. I have decided to post this article on all three of my blogs as I wish this to have as wide a circulation as possible to encourage reflection and debate.
Friday, October 05, 2012
"The customs of the Germans are very different from those of the Gauls. They have no druids to preside over religious matters, nor do they concern themselves with sacrifices".[Sixth Book, paragraph 21]Of course we know from the slightly later writings of Tacitus, notably in his Germania that the Germans not only had priests but these priests offered public sacrifices. I very much doubt that in the space of less than 150 years that their customs changed so radically. The Teutons certainly did not have `druids` for this is specific to the Celtic peoples but we know from the Roman historian Tacitus that they did have priests and a pantheon of Gods. Even this is brought into doubt by Caesar:
"The only things which they count as gods are things they can see and which clearly benefit them, for example, the Sun, Vulcan, and the Moon. They have not even heard rumours of any others."[Sixth Book, paragraph 21].`Vulcan` is taken to mean the element or deity of fire. Whilst it is clear that the Teutons did honour these three things as representative of Gods it is inconceiveable that by the time of Tacitus in the following century that they suddenly had a developed pantheon of Gods and Goddesses and not one at the time of Caesar. Tacitus either did not know the correct Teutonic names of our Gods and Godesses or chose to give them Latin names as he wrote for a Roman readership.
"As for gods, Mercury is the one they worship most, and on certain days they think it right to propitiate him even with human victims. Hercules and Mars they appease with lawful animals. Part of the Suebi sacrifice also to Isis; I have not ascertained the source from which this foreign rite originates, but the fact remains that the image itself, fashioned in the form of a light ship, proves that the cult is imported. In other matters, they judge it not in accord with the greatness of the gods to confine them with walls or to liken them in appearance to any human countenance. They consecrate woods and groves, and the mystery that they see only in their awe they call by the names of gods." "[Tacitus` Germania 9.1 and 9.2]
It is assumed by scholars that Mercury, Hercules and Mars are names that Tacitus gave to represent our Woden, Thunor and Tiw. Isis may very well be the Goddess Nehalennia[a Dutch deity] or Nerthus. I also speculate that this could in fact be the very mysterious and obscure Goddess, Isa.
"Then come the Reudigni, the Aviones, the Anglii, the Varini, the Eudoses, the Suarines, and the Nuitones, defended by rivers or woods. There is nothing noteworthy about them individually, except that collectively they worship Nerthus, or Mother Earth, and believe that she takes part in human affairs and rides among the peoples." [Germania 40.2]
Tacitus also refers to the deities Tuisto and Mannus[Germania 2.2]. Thus it is clear that the Teutons did in fact have a developed pantheon of Gods who they ascribed proper names and personalities to. We also know this to be the case from later writings by christian priests and from the Icelandic sagas and there is every reason to believe that there was a continuous and unbroken tradition over the centuries which knew only a geographic variation with local cults of deities. Germania 9 makes it clear that the Teutons did offer both animal and human sacrifices. Furthermore if sacrifices were offered to the Gods then it reasonable to assume that there was a recognised priesthood to carry out this function. In Germania 40.3 Tacitus refers to such a priesthood:
"On an island in the Ocean is a holy grove, and in it a consecrated wagon covered with hangings; to one priest alone is it permitted so much as to touch it. He perceives when the goddess is present in her innermost recess, and with great reverence escorts her as she is drawn along by heifers."
It is clear from Tacitus description and carefully chosen words that Nerthus, the Goddess he is referring to had more than one priest-"to one priest alone...." and thus this constitutes a priestly order. Adam of Bremen referred to the great temple at Uppsala and its priesthood: "Assigned to all their gods they have priests to present the sacrifices of the people." Bede of course refers to the Anglo-Saxon priest Coifu in his History of the English Church and People. The Teutonic priesthood unlike the Celtic druidic orders was not a national priesthood but one which was restricted to the tribe and thus there will be differences between them, especially as certain deities were only recognised by specific tribes, such as Nerthus and Nehalennia.
The Teutonic priests had charge of the sacred groves[the precursors of the later temples], the administration of justice, public sacrifices, the casting of lots, interpretation of omens and the safeguarding of the law. In the far north the function of priest and chieftain or king was most likely combined into a single office. A typical example is that of the Icelandic gothi. No doubt they carried this tradition with them from their native Norway. We have no reason to suppose that there were no priestesses.The female equivalent of the gothi, the gythia is attested to in the Icelandic sagas. The temple was more than likely a development from the sacred grove.
"It has been observed that among the Indo-Europeans the most ancient temples that were dedicated to the gods were sacred groves. In his survey of European folklore, Jacob Grimm observed that among the ancient Germans the oldest temples were groves. This was the case in all the lands where the Indo-Europeans held sway as the grove was the original place where the sacred was revered."[The Druids, G. Alexander]The temple at Uppsala was surrounded by a grove. Tacitus in Germania 39 refers to the sacred grove of the Suebi and in Germania the sacred grove of Nerthus. In smaller organisational units such as the clan or or family the head of the clan or the family performed the duties associated with the priest.
"In the smaller organisations of society then, priestly duties seem to have been performed by the temporal chief. It is only the great organisation, the tribe or state, which possesses a class with exclusively priestly functions."[The Ancient Teutonic Priesthood, H. Munro Chadwick]A Teutonic priesthood is in the process of being formed today. If any readers wish to explore this further see the relevant links section on this blog!
Tuesday, October 02, 2012
Even during the days when I still clung to the desert `god` religion I was always disgusted by the actions of the nithing Coifu, who Bede in his A History of the English Church and People describes as a `Chief Priest`[Chapter 13]. We are not told if he was a priest of Woden but we have no reason to assume he wasn`t. Coifu accepted christianity without any apparent show of resistance although we only have the word of a cleric for this-Bede. Likewise these words attributed to Coifu may very well be the words of Bede which he put into Coifu`s mouth: "I have long realized that there is nothing in our way of worship; for the more deligently I sought after truth in our religion, the less I found." [As an aside that is what I eventually concluded about christianity!] Coifu then went on to suggest to King Edwin that the temple and altars be "desecrated and burned." Coifu also volunteered to be the first to carry out this heinous act. He asked Edwin for "arms and a stallion". Bede tells us that it was hitherto "unlawful for the Chief Priest to carry arms or to ride anything but a mare-and, thus equipped, he set out to destroy the idols. Girded with a sword and with a spear in his hand, he mounted the king`s stallion and rode up to the idols..... "as soon as he reached the temple, he cast into it the spear he carried and thus profaned it." I am not aware of any success or indeed any attempt in carrying out excavations to discover the remnants of the temple but Bede writes that "The site where these idols once stood is still shown, not far east of York, beyond the river Derwent, and is known today as Goodmanham." Goodmanham is an old village situated about 20 miles to the east of York in the East Riding of Yorkshire in the ancient kingdom of Deira in Northumbria. It is said that the old church of All Hallows stands on or near the site of the heathen temple. I would dearly love to see it demolished for a proper archaeological excavation to take place. It would not surprise me if that was the site as we know that it was church policy for heathen temples either to be taken over by the church or be destroyed to be replaced by a christian church building. Most old Anglican[formerly Roman Catholic] churches occupy sacred heathen ground. At least we know that the Anglo-Saxons used temples and idols as part of their worship and had a priesthood. These are things which are often denied by self-appointed `experts` on the subject!