Wednesday, December 26, 2007

The Aryan Nature of the Doctrine of Awakening

"The very apex that Christian theology loses in a confused background is,instead,very often placed consciously in the foreground by the Aryo-Oriental traditions.To talk in this respect of atheism or even of pantheism betrays ignorance,an ingnorance shared by those who spend their time unearthing oppositions and antitheses.The truth is that the traditions of the Aryans who settled in the East retain and conserve much of what the later traditions of races of the same root who settled in the West have lost or no longer understand or retain only fragmentarily.A contributing factor here is the undoubted influence on European faiths of concepts of Semitic and Asiatic-Mediterranean origin.Thus to accuse of atheism the older traditions,particularly the Doctrine of Awakening,and also other Western traditions that reflect the same spirit,only betrays an attempt to expose and discredit a higher point of view on the part of a lower one:an attempt that,had circumstances had been reversed,would have qualified out of hand by the religious West as Satanic.And,in fact,we shall see that it appeared to the doctrine of the Buddha."
[Julius Evola,The Doctrine of Awakening]

Saturday, October 13, 2007

The Esoteric Interpretation of Wagner`s Die Meistersinger von Nuernberg

Wagner commenced work on Die Meistersinger von Nuernberg in 1861 and it eventually premiered in 1868.
Outwardly the work is a comedy but within it are contained great esoteric truths.
Nuernberg, the home of the sacred lance of Longinus and the future sacred centre of the Third Reich is the setting for the work with special emphasis placed upon the ancient guilds and the song contests held by them. The Mastersingers[Meistersinger] were in the direct line of tradition of the Minnesingers and Troubadours.
The Guild of Mastersingers had three degrees or grades of membership:
Companion[Neophyte] and
The annual Trial Contest was held on St John`s Eve or the day of the sacred summer solstice.
The harp was the symbol of the Mastersinger. Corinne Heline in her excellent and penetrative Esoteric Music relates this symbol back to King David but the harp also has an association with the ancient Celtic druidic order and I feel that this is a more appropriate link.
The Mastersingers of Nuernberg traced their origins to Heinrich von Meissen`s Society of Minstrels in Mainz. Dissensions within the society led to the setting up of the breakaway Nuernberg guild.
Wagner used genuine material from Hans Sachs within the work.
The main characters within the music drama are:

Hans Sachs-shoemaker and leader of the Guild of Mastersingers in Nuernberg and aspires for the hand of Eva.
Walter von Stolzing-the hero,young knight, the creator of a new artwork and candidate for Mastership within the Song Contest.
Pogner-goldsmith and second in importance to Hans Sachs and the father of Walter`s love interest, Eva.
Eva-represents the Divine Feminine and Walter`s muse.
Beckmesser-town clerk, a member of the Guild and love rival to Walter.
David-apprentice to Hans Sachs and aspiring to the grade of Companion and the hand of Magdalena.
Magdalena-David`s love interest and nurse to Eva.
The opening scene of Act 1 is 16th century Nuernberg and the Church of St Katherine.
The young knight and stranger to town, Walter von Stolzing after the morning service makes enquiries about a lady that has caught his eye and discovers that she is Eva, the daughter of the goldsmith Mastersinger Pogner. He also learns that Pogner will give the hand of his daughter to the winner of the song contest to be held the following day.
However as he is only of the second degree, a Companion he does not qualify for entrance to the contest and must first seek to be initiated in the third degree, the degree of Master.
Following Pogner`s official announcement in the gathered assembly of the Guild that he will offer the hand of his daughter to the winner Walter requests consent to enter the contest and this is granted to him but he must first pass the trials set by the Mastersingers and this occupies the rest of Act 1.
Walter`s style is very far from the staid traditions of the Guild and it is poorly received. Only Hans Sachs recognises the innovative genius of Walter.
In a sense Hans is a rival to Walter for the hand of Eva and being leader of the Guild he represents tradition, the old. Walter represents the new, the ever changing creative spirit.
Wagner clearly must have associated himself intimately with Walter as both represented the pioneering spirit of creative genius and both in their day were rejected by the establishment.
Only after the death of Wagner was his genius fully appreciated and did he receive the esteem that was his due.
The scene of Act 2 is a street in Nuernberg and we are shown the pretentious house of Pogner and the more humble abode of Sachs. David lives with Sachs as his apprentice. This was the normal custom at that time for the apprentice to share the home of their Master.
Sachs thought of Walter`s performance "No rule would fit it, yet it was faultless. "
He declared that it was "filled with ancient truths that seemed so new, like songs of birds in Springtime."
Magadelena tells Eva of Walter`s failure at the trials but she is confident of Sachs` support although it would cost him the hand of the fair Eva.
Walter, convinced that he will not succeed to the degree of Master attempts to persuade Eva to elope with him.
The bigotted and spiteful Beckmesser represents the old. He is a slave to an outworn tradition, spiteful and deceitful. He places himself in direct opposition to Walter. It is he who was responsible for the poor marking of Walter`s performance during the trials for his Mastership.
He has no comprehension of the inner creative and divine spirit. He serves the outer form only, a materialist par excellence.In this Act Beckmesser attempts to serenade Eva, unaware that it is Magdalena that appears before the window.
The cacophony of sound produces an uproar in the street and David thinking that Beckmesser is attempting to seduce his own love interest Magdalena begins to beat the despised Beckmesser.
This is one of the most humourous and lighter moments within the work.
Sachs dissuades Walter from running away with Eva for it is a requirement for initiation into any higher grade that one places the demands of the spirit before and above that of the flesh.
The opening scene of Act 3 finds us in Hans Sachs` workshop early in the morning where he is seated in his armchair reading The Chronicle of the World.
He is in a meloncholy mood. His despair leads him into the aria "Wahn! Wahn! Ueberall Wahn!"
[Mad! Mad! The whole world is mad!]
At this point Walter bursts upon the scene and relates a dream that he has had.
Sachs then relates to him the need for inspiration to have a form, not necessarily a dead and outworn form no longer fit for the purpose but that the aspiring Master should create his own form, his own rules, not those imposed upon him by a lower humanity.
Again we see Wagner projecting his own experiences upon the character of Walter.
Was it not Wagner who singlehandedly revolutionised music within the 19th century?
Sachs tells Walter that a Master Song may only be created when inspiration is drawn down from a higher source rather than from passion or base instincts.
In the ancient Aryan world the Initiates only sang of their spiritual experiences, often communicated to them in their dreams.
The Song Contest has arrived and it is Midsummer Day, the day when we are most alive to the divine realms of existence.
Walter`s Dream Song has three parts to it that represent the three degrees of initiation. The last part of the song which is concerned with highest degree cannot be rehearsed in public but must be reserved for the Song Contest due to its sacred nature.
Eva arrives in her bridal robes and Walter sings all three parts of his Prize Song and Sachs summoning David and Magdalena as witnesses proposes a form of baptism, `Baptism of the New Mode`. Sachs serving as godfather and Great Teacher and Eva as godmother and Divine Femine confer upon Walter the degree of Master and the prize of Eva, his bride. David, Sachs` disciple is raised to the degree of Companion. Magdalena typifies his feminine principle, his anima as Eva is the divine anima of Walter. Both couples are joined, integrated. The animus and anima become one, a new and whole person.
The concluding Song Contest is held in a meadow on the outskirts of Nurnberg.
Walter impresses the 12 masters, wins the contest and formally the prize of Eva`s hand.
Beckmesser had stolen material from Walter but despite his plagiarising of the material he produces only discordant sounds.

The penultimate words of Die Meistersinger are most poignant:

Ehrt Eure deutschen Meister,
dann bannt Ihr gute Geister!
Und gebt Ihr ihrem Wirken Gunst,
zerging` in Dunst
das heil`ge roem`sche Reich
und bliebe gleich
die heil`ge deutsche Kunst!

Sunday, October 07, 2007

The Esoteric Interpretation of Wagner`s Der Fliegende Hollaender

Der Fligende Hollaender[The Flying Dutchman] was inspired by a hazardous sea voyage that Wagner undertook in 1839 from the Prussian port of Pillau to London onboard a vessel called the Thetis.
A violent sea storm forced them to seek refuge in a Norwegian fjord near the fishing village of Sandwiken. It is this experience and the tale of the Flying Dutchman that gave him the inspiration to write the poem and eventually compose the librtto and music.
The music drama premiered in Dresden on 2nd January 1843.
The poem tells the story of a Dutch sea captain who was destined to sail the oceans until death liberated him but death was only dependant on the salvation wrought by the pure love of a woman.
Every seven years he was permitted to land and go ashore and each time he was disappointed, not finding the pure love and thus the salvation which would liberate him from his curse of eternal existence.
What brought about the curse was his defiance of divine will when he found his ship obstructed by adverse gales at the Cape of Good Hope he swore to finish his course `though all hell should try to stop him.`
One is reminded of the journies of Odysseus in Homer`s epic and the tale of the Wandering Jew.
Act 1 of the music drama is titled The Coming of the Phantom Ship.
This opening act convets the brooding atmosphere of the Phantom Ship and her ghostly Captain and crew adrift on the stormy sea, a strange black craft with red sails.
This is contrasted with the vision of another ship, captained by a Norwegian, Daland the father of Senta, the heroine in the story. His crew is happy and singing jovially. The contrast between the two could not be any starker than it is.
Act 2, The Recognition has its setting in the home of Senta and Daland who await the return of his ship. With her are some maidens and they are busy in the act of spinning. This is significant and I am reminded of the The Three Norns of Germanic myth who are featured in the Prologue of Goetterdaemmerung. Are they busy spinning the fate of the Dutchman?
During this act we encounter Senta`s suitor Eric who receives rejection from Senta who is patiently waiting for the arrival of the Dutchman whom she has seen in her dreams. She has come to the realisation that her role in life is to liberate the Dutchman from his long period of suffering and through her love provide his release from earthly existence which has become through endless cycles of existence a torment to him. Through his youthful presumption and defiance of divine will he is tied to an earthbound existence. Corinne Heline in her wonderful Esoteric Music interprets the 7 year cycles as seperate reincarnations of the earthbound soul.
Also during this Act Senta and the Dutchman meet for the first time.
Their mutual recognition is reminiscent of the first meeting of the lover twins Siegmund and Sieglinde, the Volsungs[see Scene 2 of Act 1 of Die Walkuere].
In Act 3 -The Immortal Pact there is again a contrast between the ghostly ship of the Dutchman and the happy singing and celebrations occuring on the deck of Daland`s vessel. A strange blue light is seen hovering over the Phantom Ship.
Senta sings to Eric "I must no longer think of thee for a higher duty calls." Turning to the Dutchman she sings "Thy bitter sorrow shall have an end. Tis I whose love shall bring thee thy redemption."
The Dutchman reveals his identity and bids her to remain behind and seek earthly happiness for her sacrifice will mean the end of her earthly existence. He then departs on his ship without her leaving Senta behind, who is restrained by Eric and her father.
However she manages to free herself from their grasp and as the Phantom Ship puts out to see throws herself off a high cliff into the waters below, crying, "My life is nothing to me unless thou be redeemed."
Senta`s act of renunciation of life brings an end to the Dutchman`s tortured existence. He is liberated by an act of selfless love from a woman. This motif is to be found in many of Wagner`s works and I am particularly reminded of Bruennhilde`s self-immolation at the close of Act 3 of Goetterdaemmerung.
Clearly Senta represents the anima that the Dutchman has been restlessly seeking throughout the storms of life and almost endless reincarnations. The union of the anima and animus has thus led to his release from the cycle and entry to a higher existence in the divine.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Aries, Ares and the Aryan Race

Is there a link between the astrological sign of Aries the Ram and Ares the Hellenic god of war and the Aryan race?
The English word ram and the Latin aries contain the Aryan root ar or ra, so common in names denoting the masculine, fiery, and creative aspect of nature, seen in the word Aryan itself. In the zodiac of the fifth root-race the sign of the ram leads off, and in astrology is called a fiery, cardinal sign, the house of Mars (Ares), as well as the house of exaltation of the sun (Ra).
The symbol of Aries is a ram's horns, and it corresponds with the head in the human anatomy. Ram's horns on the head of a hieroglyphic figure usually denote that an initiate is meant. The symbol of a ram's head and horns is, however, often phallic, a symbol of generative power, though this can be but a degradation of its original meaning. Sphinxes with ram's heads, called criosphinxes, are said to represent the period of the equinoctial points passing through the sign Aries of the celestial zodiac, following upon the age when the bull was the sign.
Egyptian deities with heads of rams, "are solar, and represent under various aspects the phases of generation and impregnation. Their ram's heads denote this meaning, a ram ever symbolizing generative energy in the abstract, while the bull was the symbol of strength and the creative function" (TG 82).

Ares is a typical Indo-European god of war and equates to the Roman Mars, the Germanic Thor/Thunor/Donar, Tyr, the Celtic Teutates and the Vedic Indra.
During the age of the Indo-European expansion, conquest and colonisation the war gods would have taken precedence over all others. Is there a case for considering whether the ancient Aryans so closely associated themselves with their war gods that they named either themselves after their gods of war or vice versa?

The Aryans were considered by the ancients to be a solar race. Not surprisingly Aries a fire sign is symbolised by the horns of a ram, a solar symbol. The most sacred sign of the Aryan race is the swastika, the best known of all solar symbols. Ares whilst being a war god is also regarded as a solar deity.

Saturday, June 23, 2007

The Caduceus-a symbol of Aryan Individuation

The caduceus, depicted as a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it is associated with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the gods.
The origin of the staff is described in the story of Tiresias who found two snakes copulating and attempted to separate them with his staff. Tiresias was immediately turned in to a woman, and so remained until he was able to repeat the act seven years later. This staff later came in to the possession of the god Hermes, along with its transformative powers.
The symbol is also to be found in the image of Baphomet and is the symbol of the transcendence of the single and divided soul joined to its twin soul in divine union, hieros gamos. To explain it in psychological terms it is the process of individuation where the animus becomes one with his anima.

The staff has been likened to the human spinal column and the two snakes compared to the feminine Ida and the masculine Pingala, two opposite poles and forces of energy in Aryan lore.
A study of Germanic and Celtic myths and sagas is replete with such examples of the animus seeking integration with his anima; Siegfried and Brunnhilde, Tristan and Isolde, Lohengrin and Elsa being just two of most well known examples of the externalisation of the animus and anima. Fairytales contain examples of the hero finding the sleeping or imprisoned maiden after a long quest and the overcoming of many dangerous trials. The exploration of the interaction between the animus and the anima was a recurring feature of many of Wagner`s music dramas.
In spiritual and psychological terms we seek either actively or instinctively this union in many ways but for those who are aware the union is to be sought in the integration of the two parts of the human brain, the left brain, the conscious mind and the right brain, the unconscious mind.
By the employment of various spiritual and psychological techniques individuals may achieve a degree of integration between the conscious and the unconscious, thereby achieving mastery of one`s self and over others.
This is the task of the god-man, to recover that psychological and spiritual state that was once his in the primordial Golden Age. The techniques for recovering this state of being are of lesser importance and will be discussed in future articles on this blog. One thing is important-the will to overcome our individual and self-imposed limitations, to use the mind to its fullest potential.
To reintegrate our anima and animus, the conscious with the unconscious is the goal and the gateway to higher things.

Saturday, June 02, 2007

Jarl-the Wotan Caste?

This article is of direct relevance to an earlier one I posted on this blog on 16 October 2006 and should be read in conjunction with that.
This is the link to the earlier post

1. Men say there went | by ways so green
Of old the god, | the aged and wise,
Mighty and strong | did Rig go striding.
. . . . . . . . . .

[Prose. It would be interesting to know how much the annotator meant by the phrase old stories. Was he familiar with the tradition in forms other than that of the poem? If so, his introductory note was scanty, for, outside of identifying Rig as Heimdall, he provides no information not found in the poem. Probably he meant simply to refer to the poem itself as a relic of antiquity, and the identification of Rig as Heimdall may well have been an attempt at constructive criticism of his own. The note was presumably written somewhere about 1300, or even later, and there is no reason for crediting the annotator with any considerable knowledge of mythology. There is little to favor the identification of Rig with Heimdall, the watchman of the gods, beyond a few rather vague passages in the other poems. Thus in Voluspo, I, the Volva asks hearing "from Heimdall's sons both high and low"; in Grimnismol, 13, there is a very doubtful line which may mean that Heimdall "o'er men holds sway, it is said," and in "the Short Voluspo" (Hyndluljoth, 40) he is called "the kinsman of men." On the other hand, everything in the Rigsthula, including the phrase "the aged and wise" in stanza I, and the references to runes in stanzas 36, 44, and 46, fits Othin exceedingly well. It seems probable that the annotator was wrong, and that Rig is Othin, and not Heimdall. Rig: almost certainly based on the Old Irish word for "king," "ri" or "rig."
1. No gap is indicated, but editors have generally assumed one. Some editors, however, add line 1 of stanza 2 to stanza 1.]

{p. 204}
2. Forward he went | on the midmost way,
He came to a dwelling, | a door on its posts;
In did he fare, | on the floor was a fire,
Two hoary ones | by the hearth there sat,
Ai and Edda, | in olden dress.
3. Rig knew well | wise words to speak,
Soon in the midst | of the room he sat,
And on either side | the others were.
4. A loaf of bread | did Edda bring,
Heavy and thick | and swollen with husks;
Forth on the table | she set the fare,
And broth for the meal | in a bowl there was.
(Calf's flesh boiled | was the best of the dainties.)
5. Rig knew well | wise words to speak,
Thence did he rise, | made ready to sleep;
Soon in the bed | himself did he lay,
And on either side | the others were.

[2. Most editions make line 5 a part of the stanza, as here, but some indicate it as the sole remnant of one or more stanzas descriptive of Ai and Edda, just as Afi and Amma, Fathir and Mothir, are later described. Ai and Edda: Great-Grandfather and Great-Grandmother; the latter name was responsible for Jakob Grimm's famous guess at the meaning of the word "Edda" as applied to the whole collection (cf. Introduction).
3. A line may have been lost from this stanza.
4. Line 5 has generally been rejected as spurious.
5. The manuscript has lines 1-2 in inverse order, but marks the word "Rig" as the beginning of a stanza.]

{p. 205}
6. Thus was he there | for three nights long,
Then forward he went | on the midmost way,
And so nine months | were soon passed by.
7. A son bore Edda, | with water they sprinkled him,
With a cloth his hair | so black they covered;
Thræll they named him, | . . . . .
8. The skin was wrinkled | and rough on his hands,
Knotted his knuckles, | . . . . .
Thick his fingers, | and ugly his face,
Twisted his back, | and big his heels.
9. He began to grow, | and to gain in strength,
Soon of his might | good use he made;

[6. The manuscript does not indicate that these lines form a separate stanza, and as only one line and a fragment of another are left of stanza 7, the editions have grouped the lines in all sorts of ways, with, of course, various conjectures as to where lines may have been lost.
7. After line 1 the manuscript has only four words: "cloth," "black," "named," and "Thræll." No gap is anywhere indicated. Editors have pieced out the passage in various ways. Water, etc.: concerning the custom of sprinkling water on children, which long antedated the introduction of Christianity, cf. Hovamol, 159 and note. Black: dark hair, among the blond Scandinavians, was the mark of a foreigner, hence of a slave. Thræll: Thrall or Slave.
8. In the manuscript line 1 of stanza 9 stands before stanza 8, neither line being capitalized as the beginning of a stanza. I have followed Bugge's rearrangement. The manuscript indicates no gap in line 2, but nearly all editors have assumed one, Grundtvig supplying "and rough his nails."
9. The manuscript marks line 2 as the beginning of a stanza.]

{p. 206}
With bast he bound, | and burdens carried,
Home bore faggots | the whole day long.
10. One came to their home, | crooked her legs,
Stained were her feet, | and sunburned her arms,
Flat was her nose; | her name was Thir.
11. Soon in the midst | of the room she sat,
By her side there sat | the son of the house;
They whispered both, | and the bed made ready,
Thræll and Thir, | till the day was through.
12. Children they had, | they lived and were happy,
Fjosnir and Klur | they were called, methinks,
Hreim and Kleggi, | Kefsir, Fulnir,
Drumb, Digraldi, | Drott and Leggjaldi,
Lut and Hosvir; | the house they cared for,
Ground they dunged, | and swine they guarded,
Goats they tended, | and turf they dug.

[10. A line may well have dropped out, but the manuscript is too uncertain as to the stanza-divisions to make any guess safe. Crooked: the word in the original is obscure. Stained: literally, "water was on her soles." Thir: "Serving-Woman."
12. There is some confusion as to the arrangement of th lines and division into stanzas of 12 and 13. The names mean: Fjosnir, "Cattle-Man"; Klur, "The Coarse"; Hreim, "The Shouter"; Kleggi, "The Horse-Fly"; Kefsir, "Concubine-Keeper"; Fulnir, "The Stinking"; Drumb, "The Log"; Digraldi, "The Fat"; Drott, "The Sluggard"; Leggjaldi, "The Big-Legged"; Lut, "The Bent"; Hosvir, "The Grey."]

{p. 207}
13. Daughters had they, | Drumba and Kumba,
Ökkvinkalfa, | Arinnefla,
Ysja and Ambott, | Eikintjasna,
Totrughypja | and Tronubeina;
And thence has risen | the race of thralls.
14. Forward went Rig, | his road was straight,
To a hall he came, | and a door there hung;
In did he fare, | on the floor was a fire:
Afi and Amma | owned the house.
15. There sat the twain, | and worked at their tasks:
The man hewed wood | for the weaver's beam;
His beard was trimmed, | o'er his brow a curl,
His clothes fitted close; | in the corner a chest.
16. The woman sat | and the distaff wielded,
At the weaving with arms | outstretched she worked;
On her head was a band, | on her breast a smock;
On her shoulders a kerchief | with clasps there was.

[13. The names mean: Drumba, "The Log"; Kumba, "The Stumpy"; Ökkvinkalfa, "Fat-Legged"; Arinnefla, "Homely Nosed"; Ysja, "The Noisy"; Ambott, "The Servant"; Eikintjasna, "The Oaken Peg" (?); Totrughypja, "Clothed in Rags"; Tronubeina, "Crane-Legged."
14. In the manuscript line 4 stands after line 4 of stanza 16, but several editors have rearranged the lines, as here. Afi and Amma: Grandfather and Grandmother.
15. There is considerable confusion among the editors as to where this stanza begins and ends.
16. The manuscript marks line 3 as the beginning of a stanza.]

{p. 208}
17. Rig knew well | wise words to speak,
Soon in the midst | of the room he sat,
And on either side | the others were.
18. Then took Amma | . . . . .
The vessels full | with the fare she set,
Calf's flesh boiled | was the best of the dainties.
19. Rig knew well | wise words to speak,
He rose from the board, | made ready to sleep;
Soon in the bed | himself did he lay,
And on either side | the others were.
20. Thus was he there | for three nights long,
Then forward he went | on the midmost way,
And so nine months | were soon passed by.
21. A son bore Amma, | with water they sprinkled him,
Karl they named him; | in a cloth she wrapped him,
He was ruddy of face, | and flashing his eyes.

[17. The manuscript jumps from stanza 17, line I, to stanza 19, line 2. Bugge points out that the copyist's eye was presumably led astray by the fact that 17, I, and 19, I, were identical. Lines 2-3 of 17 are supplied from stanzas 3 and 29.
18. I have followed Bugge's conjectural construction of the missing stanza, taking lines 2 and 3 from stanzas 31 and 4.
19. The manuscript marks line 2 as the beginning of a stanza.
20. The manuscript omits line 2, supplied by analogy with stanza 6.]

{p. 209}
22. He began to grow, | and to gain in strength,
Oxen he ruled, | and plows made ready,
Houses he built, | and barns he fashioned,
Carts he made, | and the plow he managed.
23. Home did they bring | the bride for Karl,
In goatskins clad, | and keys she bore;
Snör was her name, | 'neath the veil she sat;
A home they made ready, | and rings exchanged,
The bed they decked, | and a dwelling made.
24. Sons they had, | they lived and were happy:
Hal and Dreng, | Holth, Thegn and Smith,
Breith and Bondi, | Bundinskeggi,
Bui and Boddi, | Brattskegg and Segg.

[21. Most editors assume a lacuna, after either line 2 or line 3. Sijmons assumes, on the analogy of stanza 8, that a complete stanza describing Karl ("Yeoman") has been lost between stanzas 21 and 22.
22. No line Indicated in the manuscript as beginning a stanza. Cart: the word in the original, "kartr," is one of the clear signs of the Celtic influence noted in the introduction.
23. Bring: the word literally means "drove in a wagon"--a mark of the bride's social status. Snör: "Daughter-in-Law." Bugge, followed by several editors, maintains that line 4 was wrongly interpolated here from a missing stanza describing the marriage of Kon.
24. No line indicated in the manuscript as beginning a stanza. The names mean: Hal, "Man"; Dreng, "The Strong"; Holth, "The Holder of Land"; Thegn, "Freeman"; Smith, "Craftsman"; Breith, "The Broad-Shouldered"; Bondi, "Yeoman"; Bundinskeggi, "With Beard Bound" (i.e., not allowed to hang unkempt); Bui, "Dwelling-Owner"; Boddi, "Farm-Holder"; Brattskegg, "With Beard Carried High"; Segg, "Man."]

{p. 210}
25. Daughters they had, | and their names are here:
Snot, Bruth, Svanni, | Svarri, Sprakki,
Fljoth, Sprund and Vif, | Feima, Ristil:
And thence has risen | the yeomen's race.
26. Thence went Rig, | his road was straight,
A hall he saw, | the doors faced south;
The portal stood wide, | on the posts was a ring,
Then in he fared; | the floor was strewn.
27. Within two gazed | in each other's eyes,
Fathir and Mothir, | and played with their fingers;
There sat the house-lord, | wound strings for the bow,
Shafts he fashioned, | and bows he shaped.
28. The lady sat, | at her arms she looked,
She smoothed the cloth, | and fitted the sleeves;
Gay was her cap, | on her breast were clasps,
Broad was her train, | of blue was her gown,

[25. No line indicated in the manuscript as beginning a stanza. The names mean: Snot, "Worthy Woman"; Bruth, "Bride"; Svanni, "The Slender"; Svarri, "The Proud"; Sprakki, "The Fair"; Fljoth, "Woman" (?); Sprund, "The Proud"; Vif, "Wife"; Feima, "The Bashful"; Ristil, "The Graceful."
26. Many editors make a stanza out of line 4 and lines 1-2 of the following stanza. Strewn: with fresh straw in preparation for a feast; cf. Thrymskvitha, 22.
27. Fathir and Mothir: Father and Mother. Perhaps lines 3-4 should form a stanza with 28, 1-3.
28. Bugge thinks lines 5-6, like 23, 4, got in here from the lost stanzas describing Kon's bride and his marriage.]

{p. 211}
Her brows were bright, | her breast was shining,
Whiter her neck | than new-fallen snow.
29. Rig knew | well wise words to speak,
Soon in the midst | of the room he sat,
And on either side | the others were.
30. Then Mothir brought | a broidered cloth,
Of linen bright, | and the board she covered;
And then she took | the loaves so thin,
And laid them, white | from the wheat, on the cloth.
31. Then forth she brought | the vessels full,
With silver covered, | and set before them,
Meat all browned, | and well-cooked birds;
In the pitcher was wine, | of plate were the cups,
So drank they and talked | till the day was gone.
32. Rig knew well | wise words to speak,
Soon did he rise, | made ready to sleep;
So in the bed | himself did he lay,
And on either side | the others were.

[31. The manuscript of lines 1-3 is obviously defective, as there are too many words for two lines, and not enough for the full three. The meaning, however, is clearly very much as indicated in the translation. Gering's emendation, which I have followed, consists simply in shifting "set before them" from the first line to the second--where the manuscript has no verb,--and supplying the verb "brought" in line 1. The various editions contain all sorts of suggestions.
32. The manuscript begins both line 1 and line 2 with a capital {footnote p. 212} preceded by a period, which has led to all sorts of strange stanza-combinations and guesses at lost lines in the various editions. The confusion includes stanza 33, wherein no line is marked in the manuscript as beginning a stanza.]

{p. 212}
33. Thus was he there | for three nights long,
Then forward he went | on the midmost way,
And so nine months | were soon passed by.
34. A son had Mothir, | in silk they wrapped him,
With water they sprinkled him, | Jarl he was;
Blond was his hair, | and bright his cheeks,
Grim as a snake's | were his glowing eyes.
35. To grow in the house | did Jarl begin,
Shields he brandished, | and bow-strings wound,
Bows he shot, | and shafts he fashioned,
Arrows he loosened, | and lances wielded,
Horses he rode, | and hounds unleashed,
Swords he handled, | and sounds he swam.
36. Straight from the grove | came striding Rig,
Rig came striding, | and runes he taught him;
By his name he called him, | as son he claimed him,

[34. Jarl: "Nobly-Born."
35. Various lines have been regarded as interpolations, 3 and 6 being most often thus rejected.
36. Lines I, 2, and 5 all begin with capitals preceded by periods, a fact which, taken in conjunction with the obviously defective state of the following stanza, has led to all sorts of conjectural emendations. The exact significance of Rig's giving his own name to Jarl (cf. stanza 46), and thus recognizing him, potentially at least, as a king, depends on the conditions under {footnote p. 213} which the poem was composed (cf. Introductory Note). The whole stanza, particularly the reference to the teaching of magic (runes), fits Othin far better than Heimdall.]

{p. 213}
And bade him hold | his heritage wide,
His heritage wide, | the ancient homes.
37. . . . . . . . . . .
Forward he rode | through the forest dark,
O'er the frosty crags, | till a hall he found.
38. His spear he shook, | his shield he brandished,
His horse he spurred, | with his sword he hewed;
Wars he raised, | and reddened the field,
Warriors slew he, | and land he won.
39. Eighteen halls | ere long did he hold,
Wealth did he get, | and gave to all,
Stones and jewels | and slim-flanked steeds,
Rings he offered, | and arm-rings shared.
40. His messengers went | by the ways so wet,
And came to the hall | where Hersir dwelt;
His daughter was fair | and slender-fingered,
Erna the wise | the maiden was.

[37. Something--one or two lines, or a longer passage--has clearly been lost, describing the beginning of Jarl's journey. Yet many editors, relying on the manuscript punctuation, make 37 and 38 into a single stanza.
39. The manuscript marks both lines 1 and 2 as beginning stanzas.
40. Hersir: "Lord"; the hersir was, in the early days before the establishment of a kingdom in Norway, the local chief, and {footnote p. 214} hence the highest recognized authority. During and after the time of Harald the Fair-Haired the name lost something of its distinction, the hersir coming to take rank below the jarl. Erna: "The Capable."]

{p. 214}
41. Her hand they sought, | and home they brought her,
Wedded to Jarl | the veil she wore;
Together they dwelt, | their joy was great,
Children they had, | and happy they lived.
42. Bur was the eldest, | and Barn the next,
Joth and Athal, | Arfi, Mog,
Nith and Svein, | soon they began-
Sun and Nithjung-- | to play and swim;
Kund was one, | and the youngest Kon.
43. Soon grew up | the sons of Jarl,
Beasts they tamed, | and bucklers rounded,
Shafts they fashioned, | and spears they shook.
44. But Kon the Young | learned runes to use,
Runes everlasting, | the runes of life;

[42. The names mean: Bur, "Son"; Barn, "Child"; Joth, "Child"; Athal, "Offspring"; Arfi, "Heir"; Mog, "Son"; Nith, "Descendant"; Svein, "Boy"; Sun, "Son"; Nithjung, "Descend ant"; Kund, "Kinsman"; Kon, "Son" (of noble birth). Concerning the use made of this last name, see note on stanza 44. It is curious that there is no list of the daughters of Jarl and Erna, and accordingly Vigfusson inserts here the names listed in stanza 25. Grundtvig rearranges the lines of stanzas 42 and 43.
44. The manuscript indicates no line as beginning a stanza. Kon the Young: a remarkable bit of fanciful etymology; the {footnote p. 215} phrase is "Konr ungr," which could readily be contracted into "Konungr," the regular word meaning "king." The "kon" part is actually not far out, but the second syllable of "konungr" has nothing to do with "ungr" meaning "young." Runes: a long list of just such magic charms, dulling swordblades, quenching flames, and so on, is given in Hovamol, 147-163.]

{p. 215}
Soon could he well | the warriors shield,
Dull the swordblade, | and still the seas.
45. Bird-chatter learned he, | flames could he lessen.,
Minds could quiet, | and sorrows calm;
. . . . . . . . . .
The might and strength | of twice four men.
46. With Rig-Jarl soon | the runes he shared,
More crafty he was, | and greater his wisdom;
The right he sought, | and soon he won it,
Rig to be called, | and runes to know.
47. Young Kon rode forth | through forest and grove,
Shafts let loose, | and birds he lured;
There spake a crow | on a bough that sat:
"Why lurest thou, Kon, | the birds to come?

[45. The manuscript indicates no line as beginning a stanza. Minds: possibly "seas,"' the word being doubtful. Most editors assume the gap as indicated.
4.6. The manuscript indicates no line as beginning a stanza. Rig-Jarl: Kon's father; cf. stanza 36.
47. This stanza has often been combined with 48, either as a whole or in part. Crow: birds frequently play the part of mentor in Norse literature; cf., for example, Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 5, and Fafnismol, 32.]

{p. 216}
48. " 'Twere better forth | on thy steed to fare,
. . . . . | and the host to slay.
49. "The halls of Dan | and Danp are noble,
Greater their wealth | than thou bast gained;
Good are they | at guiding the keel,
Trying of weapons, | and giving of wounds.

[48. This fragment is not indicated as a separate stanza in the manuscript. Perhaps half a line has disappeared, or, as seems more likely, the gap includes two lines and a half. Sijmons actually constructs these lines, largely on the basis of stanzas 35 and 38, Bugge fills in the half-line lacuna as indicated above with "The sword to wield."
49. Dan and Danp: These names are largely responsible for the theory that the Rigsthula was composed in Denmark. According to the Latin epitome of the Skjöldungasaga by Arngrimur Jonsson, "Rig (Rigus) was a man not the least among the great ones of his time. He married the daughter of a certain Danp, lord of Danpsted, whose name was Dana; and later, having won the royal title for his province, left as his heir his son by Dana, called Dan or Danum, all of whose subjects were called Danes." This may or may not be conclusive, and it is a great pity that the manuscript breaks off abruptly at this stanza.]

{p. 217}

Significantly nowhere in Rigsthula does Rig[Heimdall/Odin] acknowledge Thrall or Karl as his sons. Only with Jarl does he acknowledge his paternity[see verse 36].
His parentage of Thrall and Karl is only assumed from the implications in the text but nowhere does it make it implicit that Rig is the father of anyone other than Jarl.
From Jarl Kon is born, the first of the line of kings.

"In the year that was 494 years past the birth of Christ, Cerdic and his son Cynric came up to Cerdicesora with five ships; this Cerdic was the son of Freawine, son of Freothogar, son of Brand, son of Baeldag, son of Woden."
[Preface to The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles]

Baeldag was Baldur, the son of Odin.
Rig is considered to be just another psuedonym for Odin/Wotan/Woden who has many names and many guises in his interactions with human beings.
Many Germanic royal lineages trace their descent to the god Odin/Wotan/Woden and it is this god who was favoured by the prechristian nobility whilst the common folk generally gave honour to Thor/Donar/Thunor.
Odin appears in the lineages of both historical and mythical Germanic kins and heroes.
One of the most notable mythical examples is the hero Volsung, the patriarch of the Volsunga dynasty, who are made the subject of Wagner`s Der Ring des Nibelungen.
Coud it be that Rig rather than instituting the Germanic caste system actually gave divine sanction to a system that already existed? The inference is there in the text.

Could the tripartite Germanic caste system also be an indication of differing racial elements within Germanic society, the caste of thralls[slaves] being in the main an older, conquered and subdued pre-Germanic substratum? The completely different physical characteristics certainly seem to suggest this. Only the Jarl and Karl castes give any indication of a Nordic racial phenotype.
In Aryan India the lowest caste, the Sudras which relate to the Germanic caste of Thrall are a non-Aryan caste, a Dravidian substratum in Indian society.
In the Germanic caste system the role of king and priest were actually one and the same role and no distinction is made between the two. In India they are represented by two seperate castes, the priestly caste of the Brahmin and the noble warrior caste of the Ksatriya.
The Germanic system may indicate a more ancient caste system where the royal and priestly roles were originally one in Indo-European society.
Significantly Rig taught Jarl the knowledge and use of the runes, seemingly as part of his role as a noble. So did his son Kon[king] also become adept in Runelore. This would seem to indicate that the king`s role originally in Germanic society also had a magico-religious aspect which since became watered down and lost, especially with the christianisation of the Germanic peoples.
The fact that it was Rig who taught Jarl the runes is a strong indication that Rig is indeed Odin/Wotan/Woden, the lord of the runes Himself and not Heimdall as generally considered.

"The picture of the god who wanders about under a pseudonym visiting people and finally conveying the knowledge of the runes to a chosen one among them fits better with Odin who was probably originally meant by Rigr." [Rudolf Simek, Dictionary of Northern Mythology]

Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Carl Gustav Jung-The Return of the Huntsman

.....Myth is the natural and indispensable intermediate stage between unconscious and conscious cognition. True, the unconscious knows more than consciousness does; but it is knowledge of a special sort, knowledge in eternity, usually without reference to the here and now, not couched in language of the intellect. Only when we let its statements amplify themselves...does it come within the range of our understanding; only then does a new aspect become perceptible to us. This process is convincingly repeated in every successful dream analysis. That is why it is so important not to have any preconceived, doctrinaire opinions about the statements made by dreams. As soon as a certain "monotony of interpretation" strikes us, we know that our approach has become doctrinaire and hence sterile.

Although there is no way to marshal valid proof of continuation of the soul after death, there are nevertheless experiences which make us thoughtful. I take them as hints, and do not presume to ascribe to them the significance of insights.

One night I lay awake thinking of the sudden death of a friend whose funeral had taken place the day before. I was deeply concerned. Suddenly I felt that he was in the room. It seemed to me that he stood at the foot of my bed and was asking me to go with him. I did not have the feeling of an apparition; rather, it was an inner visual image of him, which I explained to myself as a fantasy. But in all honesty I had to ask myself, "Do I have any proof that this is a fantasy? Suppose it is not a fantasy, suppose my friend is really here and I decided he was only a fantasy ---- would that not be abominable of me? " Yet I had equally little proof that he stood before me as an apparition. Then I said to myself, "Proof is neither here nor there! Instead of explaining him away as a fantasy, I might just as well give him the benefit of the doubt and for experiment's sake credit him with reality." The moment I had that thought, he went to the door and beckoned me to follow him. So I was going to have to play along with him! That was something I hadn't bargained for. I had to repeat my argument to myself once more. Only then did I follow him in my imagination.

He led me out of the house, into the garden, out to the road, and finally to his house.(In reality it was several hundred yards away from mine.) I went in, and he conducted me into his study. He climbed on a stool and showed me the second of five books with red bindings which stood on the second shelf from the top. Then the vision broke off. I was not acquainted with his library and did not know what books he owned. Certainly I could never have made out from below the titles of the books he had pointed out to me on the second shelf from the top.

This experience seemed to me so curious that next morning I went to his widow and asked whether I could look up something in my friend's library. Sure enough, there was a stool standing under the bookcase I had seen in my vision, and even before I came closer I could see the five books with red bindings. I stepped up on the stool so as to be able to read the titles. They were translations of the novels of Emile Zola. The title of the second volume read: "The Legacy of the Dead." The contents seemed to me of no interest. Only the title was extremely significant in connection with this experience.

On Life after Death

Equally important to me were the dream-experiences I had before my mother's death. News of her death came to me while I was staying in the Tessin. I was deeply shaken, for it had come with unexpected suddenness. The night before her death I had a frightening dream. I was in a dense, gloomy forest; fantastic, gigantic boulders lay about among huge jungle-like trees. It was a heroic, primeval landscape. Suddenly I heard a piercing whistle that seemed to resound through the whole universe. My knees shook. Then there were crashings in the underbrush, and a gigantic wolfhound with a fearful, gaping maw burst forth. At the sight of it, the blood froze in my veins. It tore past me, and I suddenly knew; the Wild Huntsman had commanded it to carry away a human soul. I awoke in deadly terror, and the next morning I received the news of my mother's passing.

On Life after Death

Seldom has a dream so shaken me, for upon superficial consideration it seemed to say that the devil had fetched her. But to be accurate the dream said that it was the Wild Huntsman, the "Grunhutl ", or Wearer of the Green Hat, who hunted with his wolves that night ---- it was the season of Fohn storms in January. It was Wotan, the god of my Allemanic forefathers, who had gathered my mother to her ancestors ---- negatively to the "wild horde", but positively to the "salig lut", the blessed folk. It was the Christian missionaries who made Wotan into a devil. In himself he is an important god ---- a Mercury or Hermes, as the Romans correctly realized, a nature spirit who returned to life again in the Merlin of the Grail legend and became, as the spiritus Mercurialis, the sought-after arcanum of the alchemists. Thus the dream says that the soul of my mother was taken into that greater territory of the self which lies beyond the segment of Christian morality, taken into that wholeness of nature and spirit in which conflicts and contradictions are resolved.

I went home immediately, and while I rode in the night train I had a feeling of great grief, but in my heart of hearts I could not be mournful, and this for a strange reason : during the entire journey I continually heard dance music, laughter, and jollity, as though a wedding were being celebrated. This contrasted violently with the devastating impression the dream had made on me. Here was gay dance music, cheerful laughter, and it was impossible to yield entirely to my sorrow. Again and again it was on the point of overwhelming me, but the next moment I would find myself once more engulfed by the merry melodies. One side of me had a feeling of warmth and joy, and the other of terror and grief; I was thrown back and forth between these contrasting emotions.

This paradox can be explained if we suppose that at one moment death was being represented from the point of view of the ego, and at the next from that of the psyche. In the first case it appeared as a catastrophe; that is how it so often strikes us, as if wicked and pitiless powers had put an end to a human life.

And so it is ---- death is indeed a fearful piece of brutality; there is no sense pretending otherwise. It is brutal not only as a physical event, but far more so psychically: a human being is torn away from us, and what remains is the icy stillness of death. There no longer exists any hope of a relationship, for all the bridges have been smashed at one blow. Those who deserve a long life are cut off in the prime of their years, and good-for-nothings live to a ripe old age. This is a cruel reality which we have no right to sidestep. The actual experience of the cruelty and wantonness of death can so embitter us that we conclude there is no merciful God, no justice, and no kindness.

From another point of view, however, death appears as a joyful event. In the light of eternity, it is a wedding, a mysterium coniunctionis. The soul attains, as it were, its missing half, it achieves wholeness. On Greek sarcophagi the joyous element was represented by dancing girls, on Etruscan tombs by banquets...To this day it is the custom in many regions to hold a picnic on the graves on All Souls' Day. Such customs express the feeling that death is really a festive occasion.

Several months before my mother's death, in September 1922, I had a dream which presaged it. It concerned my father, and made a deep impression upon me. I had not dreamed of my father since his death in 1896. Now he once more appeared in a dream, as if he had returned from a distant journey. He looked rejuvenated, and had shed his appearance of paternal authoritarianism. I went into my library with him, and was greatly pleased at the prospect of finding out what he had been up to. I was also looking forward with particular joy to introducing my wife and children to him, to showing him my house, and to telling him all that had happened to me and what I had become in the meanwhile. I wanted also to tell him about my book on psychological types, which had recently been published. But I quickly saw that all this would be inopportune, for my father looked preoccupied. Apparently he wanted something from me. I felt that plainly, and so I refrained from talking about my own concerns.

He then said to me that since I was after all a psychologist, he would like to consult me about marital psychology. I made ready to give him a lengthy lecture on the complexities of marriage, but at this point I awoke. I could not properly understand the dream, for it never occurred to me that it might refer to my mother's death. I realized that only when she died suddenly in Januray 1923.

My parents' marriage was not a happy one, but full of trials and difficulties and tests of patience. Both made the mistakes typical of many couples. My dream was a forecast of my mother's death, for here was my father who, after an absence of twenty-six years, wished to ask a psychologist about the newest insights and information on marital problems, since he would soon have to resume this relationship again. Evidently he had acquired no better understanding in his timeless state and therefore had to appeal to someone among the living who, enjoying the benefits of changed times, might have a fresh approach to the whole thing.

Such was the dream's message. Undoubtedly, I could have found out a good deal more by looking into its subjective meaning ---- but why did I dream it just before the death of my mother, which I did not foresee ? It plainly referred to my father, with whom I felt a sympathy that deepened as I grew older.

On Life after Death

Since the unconscious, as the result of its spatio-temporal relativity, possesses better sources of information than the conscious mind ---- which has only sense perceptions available to it ---- we are dependent for our myth of life after death upon the meager hints of dreams and similiar spontaneous revelations from the unconscious. As I have already said, we cannot attribute to these allusions the value of knowledge, let alone proof. They can, however, serve as suitable bases for mythic amplications; they give the probing intellect the raw material which is indispensable for its vitality. Cut off the intermediary world of mythic imagination, and the mind falls prey to doctrinaire rigidities. On the other hand, too much traffic with these germs of myth is is dangerous for weak and suggestible mind, for they are led to mistake vague intimations for substantial minds, for they are led to mistake vague intimations for substantial knowledge, and to hypostatize mere phantasms.

One widespread myth of the hereafter is formed by the ideas and images centering on reincarnation. In one country whose intellectual culture is highly complex and much older than ours ----- I am, of course, referring to India ---- the idea of reincarnation is as much taken for granted as, among us, the idea that God created the world, or that there is a spiritus rector. Cultivated Hindus know that we do not share their ideas about this, but that does not trouble them. In keeping with the spirit of the East, the succession of birth and death is viewed as an endless continuity, as an eternal wheel rolling on forever without a goal. Man lives and attains knowledge and dies and begins again from the beginning. Only with the Buddha does the idea of a goal emerge, namely, the overcoming of earthly existence.

The mythic needs of the Occidental call for an evolutionary cosmogony with a beginning and a goal. The Occidental rebels against a cosmogony with a beginning and mere end, just as he cannot accept the idea of a static, self-contained, eternal cycle of events. The Oriental, on the other hand, seems to be able to come to terms with this idea. Apparently there is no unanimous feeling about the nature of the world, any more than there is general agreement among contemporary astronomers on this question. To Western man, the meaninglessness of a merely static universe is unbearable. He must assume that it has meaning. The Oriental does not need to make this assumption; rather, he himself embodies it. Whereas the Occidental strives for the fulfillment of meaning in man, stripping the world and existence from himself (Buddha).

I would say that both are right. Western man seems predominantly extraverted, Eastern man predominantly introverted. The former projects the meaning and considers that it exists in objects; the latter feels the meaning in himself. But the meaning is both without and within.

The idea of rebirth is inseperable from that of karma. The crucial question is whether a man's karma is personal or not. If it is, then the preordained destiny with which a man enters life represents an achievement of previous lives, and a personal continuity therefore exists. If, however, this is not so, and an impersonal karma is seized upon in the act of birth, then that karma is incarnated again without there being any personal continuity.

Buddha was twice asked by his disciples whether man's karma is personal or not. Each time he fended off the question, and did not go into the matter; to know this, he said, would not contribute to liberating oneself from the illusion of existence. Buddha considered it far more useful for his disciples to meditate upon the Nidana chain, that is, upon birth, life, old age, and death, and upon the cause and effect of suffering.

I know no answer to the question of whether the karma which I live is the outcome of my past lives, or whether it is not rather the achievement of my ancestors, whose heritage comes together in me. Am I a combination of the lives of these ancestors and do I embody these lives again? Have I lived before in the past as a specific personality, and did I progress so far in that life that I am now able to seek a solution? I did not know. Buddha left the question open, and I like to assume that he himself did not know with certainty.

I could well imagine that I might have lived in former centuries and there encountered questions I was not yet able to answer; that I had to be born again because I had not fulfilled the task that was given to me. When I die, my deeds will follow along with me ----- that is how I imagine it. I will bring with me what I have done. In the meantime it is important to insure that I do not stand at the end with empty hands. Buddha, too, seems to have had this thought when he tried to keep his disciples from wasting time on useless speculation.

The meaning of my existence is that life has addressed a question to me. Or, conversely, I myself am a question which is addressed to the world, and I must communicate my answer, for otherwise I am dependent upon the world's answer. That is a suprapersonal life task, which they could not answer. Could that be why I am so impressed by the fact that the conclusion of Faust contains no solution? Or the problem on which Nietzsche foundered: the Dionysian side of life, to which the Christian seems to have lost the way? Or is it the restless Wotan-Hermes of my Alemannic and Frankish ancestors who poses challenging riddles?

Thursday, March 22, 2007

Hieros Gamos-Aryan Sacred Marriage

"Wedlock would generally show the characteristics of a "mystery" in a system practicing rituals. In Greece, the goddess of wedlock was called Aphrodite Teleia, the Fulfiller,her attribute coming from the telos, a word used for initiation.In a well-known Indo-European ritual linked to the act of procreation,the conscious identification with the cosmic male and female, the Sky and the Earth, was confirmed openly:

Then the husband should draw near to her and pronounce the formula "I am He and you are She; you are She and I am He. I am the song[Saman] and you are the refrain[re];...I am the Sky and you are the Earth. Come, embrace me, let us mingle our seed for the birth of a male and for the richness of our home." Next, making [the woman] open her legs, he should say, O ye Sky and Earth, mingle yourselves!" Then he should enter her and with his mouth joined to hers stroke her three times from downward and say,"......Just as the Earth welcomes the Fire to its bosom, as the Sky shuts Indra within its womb,and as the cardinal points teem with the wind, so I leave in you the seed of[the name of the child]."[Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad]

Manhood, therefore, was under the sign of the Sky and womanhood under that of the Earth. In Greece as well, according to Pindar, when referring to the foundation of their deepest nature, men in love called on Helios, the Sun, whereas women invoked Selene, the Moon. We should also note that in almost all the Hindu dialects having their origin in Sanskrit, women were called prakriti , a word that, as we saw earlier, was the metaphysical designation of "nature" and also of the female force of the impassive god, the purusha . The background of marriage as a holy ceremony was destined to become slowly obscured, although to this day positive traces of it still persist which can only be explained by supposing its prior existence.
It was only preserved with precise divine and cosmic relationships in the cultural domain, in a specific sense, in connection with varieties of the hieros gamos, the ritual holy marriage or marriage to a god, as we shall recount shortly. In ancient times, it was rightly said that a people who made wedding customs into a rite that conformed to the eternal laws formed a great magical chain binding the material realm to higher realms. Novalis was right when deeming that marriage as it is known nowadays is like a "desecrated mystery"; with the passage of time it has been reduced in effect to nothing more than the only alternative provided by society against fear of loneliness.
And the fact that Claude de Saint-Martin certainly did not understand the importance of his words and had no vision of the situation in which those words are true, does not lessen their accuracy: "If mankind knew what marriage is, it would have at one and the same time an extraordinary desire for it and a tremendous fear of it; for by means of it man could once again be made like God or could end in total ruin."
[Juilus Evola, "Eros And The Mysteries Of Love. The Metaphysics Of Sex."]

Saturday, March 17, 2007

Vril, The Power of the Coming Race

One of the most influential science fiction novels of the 19th century was The Coming Race by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, published in 1871.
Bulwer-Lytton[1803-1873] was allegedly a Rosicrucian and his knowledge of the Occult is reflected in many of his works, especially The Coming Race which is a story about the discovery by a mining engineer of a secret underground world populated by a superior race of humanoid beings with advanced spiritual powers.
The source of their power is the mysterious Vril, a type of energy source that permeates all living things as well an inaminate objects and can be equated to the Prana of the Hindus, the Pneuma of the ancient Greeks, the Rhea Kybele of the Romans, the Chi of the Chinese, the Ki of the Japanese, the Odic force `discovered` by Baron Carl von Reichenbach and the Fohat of Madame Helene Petrovna Blavatsky.
Indeed the notable psychologist Brian Bates, the author of The Real Middle Earth, The Wisdom of Wyrd and The Way of Wyrd associates this same power with the Anglo-Saxon concept of Wyrd.

In Vrilology. The Secret Science of the Ancient Aryans Robert Blumetti states:

"The Vril is a universal force difficult to describe. Philosophers and occultists have known of its existence for milleniums, and today scientists have rediscovered it, but still do not know exactly what to make of it and are unaware of its true power. They refer to it by many different names: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, the Black Sun, I Ching, the Ur, the Force, the Life Force, the Universal Spirit or Electro-magnetic force. Einstein`s law of e=mc2 claims that there must be a certain amount of matter to produce a given amount of energy, but scientists have discovered that this law no longer is valid. The energy emanated from exploding black holes produces gamma rays equivalent to thousands of times their mass. In fact, the physical laws of Einsteinian science are unable to explain the existence of black holes. Scientists realise that 90% of the universe is made up of some substance other than matter and energy, but cannot explain what that substance is. We call it the Vril."

Mr Blumetti goes on to credit the Aryan Tocharians of the Tarim Basin as being responsible for the introduction of the knowledge of Vril to the Chinese.

"The Chinese knew something of the power of Vril from their contact with the Tocharians. They referred to it as Feng Shui, which means `wind and water`. It is also known as Chi, which means `breath of life`. Chi is the force of the universe, filling the air, landscape, buildings, mountains. It exists everywhere in space-between the planets and stars. It cris-crosses the landscape as energy lines or ley lines. The Chinese believe that it must be permitted to flow naturally, and any interruption causes `bad luck`. If one were to construct a wall or building that disrupted its flow, it would cause terrible disruptions in the lives of those who lived in the structure or nearby. The ancient Celts of the British Isles knew of these energy lines, and referred to them as elf or faire trails."

Who were the people referred to as the Vril-ya in The Coming Race?
According to the novel they speak an Indo-European language.

"The philologist will have seen from the above how much the language of the Vril-ya is akin to the Aryan or Indo-Germanic.........."[Chapter 12].

He also describes them as having "descended from the same ancestors as the great Aryan family, from which in varied streams has flowed the dominant civilisation of the world........"
[Chapter 26]

The Vril-ya were able to utilise the energy of the Vril for both beneficial and destructive purposes. The energy itself is neutral. It is the use that the force is applied to which determines whether it is used for beneficial or baneful effect.
The Vril was the power behind the technology of the Vril-ya who had to need for electricity. Its source was not unlimited but it is in plentiful supply and the application of it caused no pollution to the environment for it is a natural energy source that humanity can tap into.

"The student should bear in mind that Vril is never manufactured in the human body. There is just so much Vril in existence-a certain amount or quantity-and this amount or quantity never can be added to, nor subtracted from, by the organism of man."
[Vril or Vital Magnetism, Lesson III]

Vril is undoubtedly the energy source for the future and awaits our rediscovery both collectively as humanity but also individually as well.

"The man or woman who understands the art of suggesting to the subconscious mind, and of directing currents of Vril to the parts of the body, may keep his or her system in perfect condition and functioning power, and thus reach an old age of health, vigor, and virility."[Lesson III]

Sunday, March 04, 2007

Tacitus, Germania and the Armanenschaft

Tacitus` Germania 2.2 "In ancient lays, their only type of historical tradition, they celebrate Tuisto, a god brought forth from the earth. They attribute to him a son, Mannus, the source and founder of their people, and to Mannus three sons, from whose names those nearest the Ocean are called Ingvaeones, those in the middle Herminones, and the rest Istvaeones."

It has generally been understood that the three original divisions of the Germanic peoples represented divisions based purely on ancestry and geography. However Guido von List makes it clear in his Die Armanenschaft der Ario-Germanen that the three divisions of the Germanic peoples also represent three seperate functions or classes, almost like a caste system.
It is common knowledge that ancient Aryan societies operated variations of a tripartite caste system, normally categorised as producers, warriors and priests.
According to von List the Ingvaeones were the producers or cultivators, the Naehrstand.
The Istvaeones were the warrior caste, the Wehrstand and the Herminones were the Armanenschaft who embodied within themselves the functions of Priest, Teacher and Judge in the same way as the Celtic druidic orders was the Lehrstand.

`In meinem Buche: "Die Namen der Voelkerstaemme Germaniens und deren Deutung" gebe Ich ausfuehrliche Mitteilungen ueber das Entstehen, das Alter und die Ausbreitung der arischen Urrasse, worauf Ich hiermit verweisse, und bringe den Nachweis, das die von Tacitus in der "Germania", Kap. II angefue angeblichen drei Hauptstaemme der Germanen, naemlich die Ingaevonen, die Hermionen und die Istvaeonen, nicht Staemme, sondern Staende bedeuten, dass selbe richtig: "Ing-fonen", "Armanen" und "Ist-fo-onen" zu nennen find, und nichts anderes als "Naehrstand", "Lehrstand" und "Wehrstand" bezeichnen.*`

*Besser gesagt: Entstehungsstand, Waltungsstand und Vergehungsstand zum Neuerstehen.

The role of the Armanen is brought out in this passage, `Die Armanen waren als Pfleger und Wahrer der Rita daher, wie scon eingangs erwaehnt wurde, Lehrer, Priester und Richter in einer Person, wie ja auch die "Rita" Wissenschaft, Religion und Gesetz in einem Begriffe war, ja sie ein allumfassendes Lehrgebaeude hoechster philosophischer Erkenntnis, entsprungen dem intuitivsten Empfinden der Volksseele, bedeute..........`

Is the secret Armanen priesthood , the Armanenschaft to be located in the central German living space? What significance has this for the development of German history?
Could the 1st century CE Prince of the Cheruski, Hermann or Arminius have been an Armanen adept? Could he in fact be part of an illustrious Armanen blood line that continues down to this very day? Indeed was he the originator of the Armanenschaft itself?

Saturday, February 24, 2007

Wotan`s Sacrifice of Himself to His Self

The words of Wotan from stanza 137-144 of the Havamal:

I trow I hung on that windy Tree
nine whole days and nights,
stabbed with a spear, offered to Odin,
myself to mine own self given,
high on that Tree of which none hath heard
from what roots it rises to heaven.
None refreshed me ever with food or drink,
I peered right down in the deep;
crying aloud I lifted the Runes
then back I fell from thence.
Nine mighty songs I learned from the great
son of Bale-thorn, Bestla's sire;
I drank a measure of the wondrous Mead,
with the Soulstirrer's drops I was showered.
Ere long I bare fruit, and throve full well,
I grew and waxed in wisdom;
word following word, I found me words,
deed following deed, I wrought deeds.
Hidden Runes shalt thou seek and interpreted signs,
many symbols of might and power,
by the great Singer painted, by the high Powers fashioned,
graved by the Utterer of gods.
For gods graved Odin, for elves graved Daïn,
Dvalin the Dallier for dwarfs,
All-wise for Jötuns, and I, of myself,
graved some for the sons of men.
Dost know how to write, dost know how to read,
dost know how to paint, dost know how to prove,
dost know how to ask, dost know how to offer,
dost know how to send, dost know how to spend?
Better ask for too little than offer too much,
like the gift should be the boon;
better not to send than to overspend.
Thus Odin graved ere the world began;
Then he rose from the deep, and came again.

Many have likened Wotan`s sacrifice of himself to himself to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
However there are many points of difference. Wotan initiates the sacrifice in order to gain hidden esoteric knowledge not to `save mens` souls`. His sacrifice does not result in his `death` but in the acquisition of the runes and cosmic knowledge.
The picture that we have of Wotan on the world tree is one of a shaman entering altered states of consciousness. The nine nights that he spent on the windy tree could infer that each night was spent travelling to one of the nine worlds-Asgard, Vanaheim, Alfheim, Midgard, Jotunheim, Svartalfheim, Niflheim, Muspelheim and Hel.
The world tree, known as Yggdrasil means `The Terrible One`s Steed`. This horse or tree was the vehicle used by Wotan to travel to the various worlds of the Unconsciousness. The use of the horse, an animal sacred to the ancient Teutons and the altered states of consciousness along with visitations to strange worlds are indicative of a shamanic trance.
Wotan is the great magician, the shaman who as the one who has gone before acts as our guide and beckons us to follow him in his journies as the Wanderer of the nine worlds.
The Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung theorised that there were 8 levels of the human personality or levels of the Unconscious, ie the individual, the family, the clan, the nation, a larger group, eg European man, the primal ancestors, the animal ancestors and the "Central Fire".
Wotan`s gaining of the runes was via a process of self-annihilation. This has less to do with the Christian concept of the crucifixion achieving universal salvation but more to do with the Gnostic and Buddhist notion of the elimination of the Self to achieve wholeness.

Those songs I know, which nor sons of men
nor queen in a king's court knows;
the first is Help which will bring thee help
in all woes and in sorrow and strife.
A second I know, which the son of men
must sing, who would heal the sick.
A third I know: if sore need should come
of a spell to stay my foes;
when I sing that song, which shall blunt their swords,
nor their weapons nor staves can wound.
A fourth I know: if men make fast
in chains the joints of my limbs,
when I sing that song which shall set me free,
spring the fetters from hands and feet.
A fifth I know: when I see, by foes shot,
speeding a shaft through the host,
flies it never so strongly I still can stay it,
if I get but a glimpse of its flight.
A sixth I know: when some thane would harm me
in runes on a moist tree's root,
on his head alone shall light the ills
of the curse that he called upon mine.
A seventh I know: if I see a hall
high o'er the bench-mates blazing,
flame it ne'er so fiercely I still can save it, --
I know how to sing that song.
An eighth I know: which all can sing
for their weal if they learn it well;
where hate shall wax 'mid the warrior sons,
I can calm it soon with that song.
A ninth I know: when need befalls me
to save my vessel afloat,
I hush the wind on the stormy wave,
and soothe all the sea to rest.
A tenth I know: when at night the witches
ride and sport in the air,
such spells I weave that they wander home
out of skins and wits bewildered.
An eleventh I know: if haply I lead
my old comrades out to war,
I sing 'neath the shields, and they fare forth mightily
safe into battle,
safe out of battle,
and safe return from the strife.
A twelfth I know: if I see in a tree
a corpse from a halter hanging,
such spells I write, and paint in runes,
that the being descends and speaks.
A thirteenth I know: if the new-born son
of a warrior I sprinkle with water,
that youth will not fail when he fares to war,
never slain shall he bow before sword.
A fourteenth I know: if I needs must number
the Powers to the people of men,
I know all the nature of gods and of elves
which none can know untaught.
A fifteenth I know, which Folk-stirrer sang,
the dwarf, at the gates of Dawn;
he sang strength to the gods, and skill to the elves,
and wisdom to Odin who utters.
A sixteenth I know: when all sweetness and love
I would win from some artful wench,
her heart I turn, and the whole mind change
of that fair-armed lady I love.
A seventeenth I know: so that e'en the shy maiden
is slow to shun my love.
These songs, Stray-Singer, which man's son knows not,
long shalt thou lack in life,
though thy weal if thou win'st them, thy boon if thou obey'st them
thy good if haply thou gain'st them.
An eighteenth I know: which I ne'er shall tell
to maiden or wife of man
save alone to my sister, or haply to her
who folds me fast in her arms;
most safe are secrets known to but one-
the songs are sung to an end.
Now the sayings of the High One are uttered in the hall
for the weal of men, for the woe of Jötuns,
Hail, thou who hast spoken! Hail, thou that knowest!
Hail, ye that have hearkened! Use, thou who hast learned!

Interestingly this section of the Havamal, known as the Runatal refers to 18 different runes, not the 24 of the elder futharc, the 33 of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc or the 16 of the Scandinavian younger futharc. It does however fit nicely with the rediscovered 18 rune futharc of the late 19th/early 20th century German runemaster and mystic, Guido von List.
Did von List `invent` the Armanen 18 rune futharc or did he like Wotan rediscover the runes in a trance like state? It is interesting to note that von List rediscovered these lost runes whilst he was suffering a period of temporary blindness lasting eleven months in 1902.